Skip to main content

Open Educational Resources (OER): Share Your Story

Guide to locating open access textbooks and more

Textbook Camp

Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Presentation
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants
Textbook Camp Participants

We Want You!

Share your story of how you lowered textbook costs for your students.

Textbook Camp Presentations - May 2018

Textbook Camp Success Story - Silvia Schmid - German 151

Textbook Camp Presentations - January 2018

Textbook Success Stories @MCC

Course: Introduction to Entrepreneurship

Instructor: Sherry Ridge

Textbook Success Story: Using a non-traditional text book. The text book we currently use costs our students $224.65, next semester the book will cost $21. $203.65 SAVINGS!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: Web Development and Programming

Instructor: Meri Winchester

Textbook Success Story:  We are using our site license for lynda.com to supplement materials in both live and online courses for programming and web development. We use free online resources at W3Schools.com and Code Academy to replace text books. In our Programming Logic course we selected a free, open source book - Think Python - that can be purchased for less than $35.00 or downloaded free from the publisher's website. Our goal is to keep books under $50 when practical, and use as many free resources as we can. Due to how rapidly our subject changes, the interactive websites are generally more current than any text, which is starting to go out of date by the time it is published.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: Spanish Language courses

Instructor: Lindsay Carson

Textbook Success Story:  By switching from a print book to an e-book/e-workbook combo, we saved our students up to $307.50 (net).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: Culinary Management

Instructor: Tina Drzal

Textbook Success Story:  We have adopted a single textbook for use in lab classes. The Culinary book covers 5 lab classes and the Pastry book covers 4 lab classes. We eliminated the online ʺstudy guideʺ package ($20 extra) for each book and use our own shared resources for homework. For industry certified classes, we are working with the publisher to order direct and include the textbook cost in student course fees. This eliminates the burden of ordering on students and ensures that everyone has the book they need on the day they need it.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: Soil Science

Instructor: Bruce Spangenberg

Textbook Success Story:  The base information for most textbooks covering soil science comes from the USDA Soil Survey Manual. Authors of these very expensive textbooks present material from the manual in a variety of ways. The USDA manual is free, available as a pdf online, and is not copyrighted as it is a public domain government publication. We now print the sections of the manual we need for HRT 105 and the students do not have to buy an expensive book, yet are getting the same information (actually more complete than the textbooks).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: SPE 151: Introduction to Speech

Instructor: Ron Compton

Textbook Success Story:  For our students in our classes which require the e-book, there is a savings of $43 vs. a new softcover print book. For our classes which allow students to choose either version, students who choose the new print book can sell it back after the course is finished to MCC's Bookstore for 50% of its original price, a reimbursement of $67.50.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Softcover print book: The Art of Public Speaking/$135

New Book Name/Coste-book: The Art of Public Speaking/$92

Enrollment Per Semester: 500

Savings Per Semester: $21,500

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: BUS 155: Business Communication

Instructor: Sara White

Textbook Success Story:  We had required a hard copy, then switched to an eBook, and are now trying an OER.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Essentials of Business Communication 10e by Guffey & Loewy/$228 for print book; $58 for ebook

New Book Name/CostBusiness Communication for Success/$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 40

Savings Per Semester: $2,320 savings from ebook ($9,120 savings over print text book)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: ROB 150/ROB 151 PLC Automation Applications I & II

Instructor: Jack Brzezinski

Textbook Success Story:  In automation programming classes, we will be using new software and hardware recently obtained through grants. Existing textbooks provide very general and traditional introduction materials that is often incompatible with new technologies. Our goal is to make sure that the new materials support better pedagogy. Also, it is important that we guide students through practical exercises in the lab.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Programmable Logic Controllers by Schoolcraft Publishing/$80

New Book Name/CostAutomation Programming/$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 20

Savings Per Semester: $1,600

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: HFE 152: Women's Health Issues

Instructor: Elaine Whalen and Vicki Hamill

Textbook Success Story:  Replacing textbook with government/educational Links, Educational TED Talks and Free E-Books

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Contemporary Women's Health/$133.35

New Book Name/CostOur Bodies, Ourselves/$15

Enrollment Per Semester: 24

Savings Per Semester: $2,840.40

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: HIS 170: United States History I

Instructor: Sarah Sullivan

Textbook Success Story:  OER text, developing test banks, digital sources

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Give me Liberty/$98

New Book Name/Cost: Voices of Freedom/$20

Enrollment Per Semester: 175

Savings Per Semester: $13,650

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: ENG 151/152: Comp I and Comp II

Instructor: Cynthia VanSickle & Starr Nordgren

Textbook Success Story:  We created a repository of open access materials, including textbooks and full courses, as well as sample courses using all free materials for Composition I and Composition II. Instructors can begin using these materials and the repository immediately. If all faculty adopt this model, textbooks costs will drop to $0 for students.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  varies/$20-$120

New Book Name/Cost: $0

Enrollment Per Semester: 1,200

Savings Per Semester: $24,000-$144,000

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: BUS 150: Introduction to Business

Instructor: Rich Bruce, Noelle Butski, Sherry Ridge

Textbook Success Story:  We worked hard, in a week-long project, to completely eliminate the textbook cost for our Introduction to Business students. We created a repository of assignments, discussions, exercises, projects and quizzes that go hand-in-hand with the Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook, we have selected for this class, Exploring Business. Everything we chose is related to the outlined objectives for the course. We created a shell that is designed to be used as a "Cafeteria Style" repository where instructors can pick and choose the tools and resources they would like to use for their course.

Each chapter has a quiz bank with at least 20 questions to pull from for quizzes. The module items have been separated into 5 different types: assignments, case studies, discussions, exercises and projects. Most items already contain rubrics. At minimum, the rubrics include the course objectives (and in many cases the business department outcomes, and general education goals) that can be met by completion of that particular item.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Business Essentials/$121

New Book Name/Cost: Exploring Business (OER)/$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 150

Savings Per Semester: $18,150

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: MAT 095/099: Beginning Algebra & Intermediate Algebra

Instructor: Deborah Alheit, Heidi Boring, Mark Carlson, Marie Robison

Textbook Success Story:  We have decided to adopt a textbook that is free to download for all of our Beginning and Intermediate Algebra students. Students can also choose to purchase a $12 bound copy if they desire a physical copy. During the textbook camp we developed worksheets to go along with each section in the new textbook and uploaded them into a Canvas shell for any of our math instructors to download, edit, and use as they see fit in their classrooms. We have also created template courses at www.myopenmath.com for teachers that wish to use a free online assessment resource with their classes.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Beginning and Intermediate Algebra (Sherri Messersmith)/$138

New Book Name/CostBeginning and Intermediate Algebra; 2nd Ed (Tyler Wallace)/$0 to download; $12 for bound copy

Enrollment Per Semester: 520

Savings Per Semester: $65,520 - $71,760

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: PHI 261: Religions of the World

Instructor: Meyrl Schmit and Steve Young

Textbook Success Story:  Replacing textbook with less expensive text, supplemented with online resources, readings and videos.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Experiencing World Religions/$193

New Book Name/Cost: Inside World Religions/$25

Enrollment Per Semester: varies

Savings Per Semester: $168 per student

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: CDM 130: Windows Operating Systems

Instructor: Mike J. Tetreault

Textbook Success Story:  I'm taking advantage of MCC's site license to lynda.com

Previous Book Name/Cost:  MICROSOFT WINDOWS 8 COMPREHENSIVE /$120

New Book Name/Cost: none/$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 24

Savings Per Semester: $2,880

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: HRT 100: Introduction to Horticulture

Instructor: Bruce Spangenberg

Textbook Success Story:  Over the past 2 years have changed textbooks used to now be no cost to students in 4 Horticulture AAS Core courses (HRT 100, HRT 105, HRT 150, HRT 251); have eliminated purchasing textbooks in 3 floral design courses (HRT 120, HRT 125, HRT 221); and eliminated textbook cost in 2 other elective courses (HRT 159, HRT 181)

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Practical Horticulture/$164.42

New Book Name/CostIntro to Horticulture at MCC /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 16

Savings Per Semester: $2,630.72

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: MAD 105: Programming for Android

Instructor: Meri Winchester

Textbook Success Story:  We are using completely online resources, free and Lynda.com. We have the goal of removing textbook costs for the entire MAD program, it will take a few years to rewrite all of the courses to support this.

Previous Book Name/Cost:  Learn Java for Android Programming/$40

New Book Name/Cost: none /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: varies

Savings Per Semester: $40 per student

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: PLT 151: United States Government

Instructor: Matthew Hansel

Textbook Success Story:  In the past I had tried using unbound books, or "essentials" versions, but all of them continued to increase in cost after an initial reduction. Now, through OER and PBS and WGHE in Boston (the creators of the CRASH COURSE series), I've been able to replace the text book with free online resources. The new resources will engage the students more and create more interaction in class and online. I feel good about this project because I was not only able to eliminate a textbook, thus reducing the cost to students, but I was also able enhance the quality of the material they are interacting with. This will provide an environment much more conducive to learning.

Previous Book Name/Cost: American Government and Politics Today/$150

New Book Name/Cost: none /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 75

Savings Per Semester: $11,250

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: HIT 240: Electronic Health Records

Instructor: Allison Minicz

Textbook Success Story:  I implemented the virtual lab my students already utilize for other HIT courses. They will now have practice on four EHR's instead of one publisher created EHR.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Exploring Electronic Health Records /$117

New Book Name/Cost: none /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 15

Savings Per Semester: $1,755

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: AOM 105 Keyboarding - Speed & Accuracy

Instructor: Julie Freelove

Textbook Success Story:  I worked with the publisher of both of these textbooks and explained MCC's initiative. When our students complete the AOM101 - Keyboarding I class, they create a GDP account that is good for two years. They also purchase a textbook that has an abundance of drills and timings (more than we could use in just one class). After explaining this to the publisher, we created a plan where students could use their materials from AOM101 for AOM105 as well, saving students from having to purchase materials for this elective class.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Improving Speed & Accuracy In Keyboarding /$121

New Book Name/CostGDP Account & Book Used in AOM101 /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 5

Savings Per Semester: $600

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Success Stories May 2018

Course: SPA 151/SPA 152/SPA 251 Elementary Spanish I and II, Intermediate Spanish I

Instructor: Lindsay Carson and Jessica Whitcomb

Textbook Success Story:  We are replacing a traditional textbook with Canvas repositories containing free materials for all instructors to share. We also found a low-cost, on-line workbook tool which can be purchased using departmental funds (so it's free for students!). We've decided not to replace our reader which can be purchased on-line for approximately $2.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Sol y viento, Easy Spanish Reader/$226

New Book Name/CostEasy Spanish Reader /$55

Enrollment Per Semester: 89

Savings Per Semester: $15,219

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: PHI 155 Introduction to Logic

Instructor: Joo Lee

Textbook Success Story:  I am moving to a free online textbook, supplemented by available online resources (including PowerPoints from full courses, YouTube videos, and problem sets) and original materials that will eventually be available on Canvas Commons. Hopefully, other instructors in the department who teach this course will find this material helpful and be inspired to make similar changes in their own sections.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Essentials of Logic/$120

New Book Name/Cost: Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 48

Savings Per Semester: $5,760

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: PLT 251 International Relations

Instructor: Todd Culp

Textbook Success Story:  I have used many different online articles and resources. One of the most helpful of the resources I used was the Center for Open Education.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Why Nations Go to War/$189.75

New Book Name/Cost: International Relations Theory /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 35

Savings Per Semester: $6,641.25

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: NET 180 Computer Security Awareness

Instructor: Stephen Mujeye

Textbook Success Story: I have used open source material as well as lectures and videos on Lynda.com.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Applying Practical Security in Your World /$135

New Book Name/CostComputer Security Tutorial & Lynda.com /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 15

Savings Per Semester: $2,025

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: GEG 123 Energy Resources

Instructor: Theodore Erski

Textbook Success Story: The text will now be 100% free for any MCC student enrolled in GEG 123. They will have access to each chapter via a unique Canvas shell where each chapter is available in pdf format. Digital format allows for cost-effective, timely revisions that would otherwise require a new, printed edition of the textbook.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Energy Resources /$178

New Book Name/CostEnergy Resources /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 48

Savings Per Semester: $8,544

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: NUR 112/115/130/135 Nursing - First Year

Instructor: Angela Sass

Textbook Success Story: I found online resources for students and eliminated over half the books previously required. Last year students were required to purchase 8 books to support them throughout the nursing program. Utilizing the Nursing Reference Center, an online depository of verified sources, eliminated all but two texts. An app for phone/tablet use is also available to students. This will allow students to have access to verified, professional resources at their fingertips for a fraction of the cost.

Previous Book Name/Cost: First Year Book Bundle /$665

New Book Name/Cost: First Year Book Bundle /$288.89

Enrollment Per Semester: 27

Savings Per Semester: $9,855

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: SPE 151 Introduction to Speech

Instructor: Ron Compton and Bonnie Gable

Textbook Success Story: Our first strategy to reduce costs was the use of the e-Book version of the current text (first by Bonnie in Spring, 2015, and then by Ron in Fall, 2015) but the savings was only $43 per student. Beginning Fall, 2018, we (Ron & Bonnie) will pilot the FREE online textbook for our students and by Spring, 2019, all speech sections will adopt the virtual textbook, resulting in a cost-reduction of $174, 960 annually!

Previous Book Name/Cost: The Art of Public Speaking /$135

New Book Name/CostPublic Speaking: The Virtual Text /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 648

Savings Per Semester: $87,480.00

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: MAT 220 Statistics

Instructor: Heidi Boring

Textbook Success Story: In the spring of 2018, Heidi Boring piloted the textbook Introductory Statistics by OpenStax for her sections of Math 220 Statistics for Business and Social Science. Heidi shared her course materials to create a master course on Canvas for the entire department to use. In the fall semester of 2018, two more instructors will be using the OpenStax textbook for Statistics classes. The department is now considering adopting the OpenStax book for both Math 220 and Math 120 (General Education Statistics) for all face to face sections of the course. The savings for Mat 220 will be about $34,000 per semester. If adopted for Math 120 as well, the savings for students would more than double.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Statistics for Business and Economics (13th ed) McClave/$254.50 new or $190.90 used

New Book Name/CostIntroductory Statistics by OpenStax /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 135

Savings Per Semester$34,000

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: MAT 161 College Algebra

Instructor: Tammi Kostos

Textbook Success Story: Previously we have used a textbook that students purchased for $206.00. I have developed materials for a pilot of one course with a free text. This will save students $6,180. Provided the pilot goes well, the shell of information I have developed will be shared with the department for hopeful implementation in other sections. This could produce students a yearly savings of up to $98,880

Previous Book Name/Cost: College Algebra/$206

New Book Name/CostCollege Algebra by OpenStax /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 30 per section

Savings Per Semester$6,180 per section

Success Stories January 2018

Course: GER 151 Elementary German

Instructor: Silvia Schmid

Textbook Success Story:  I used online sources to build an elementary course.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Wie geht's /$306.95

New Book Name/Cost: none /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 16

Savings Per Semester: $4,900

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: GEL 110 Geology of the National Parks

Instructor: Kate Kramer

Textbook Success Story:  Fortunately, because this course focuses on U.S. National Parks, I am able to use information from the National Park Service website and published government documents. I've linked the students to each park's Geology specific webpage for basic information via Canvas. I have also provide Government published pdf's of each parks Geologic Resource Inventory for more in-depth information regarding the geology in each park.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Parks & Plates /$124

New Book Name/Cost: none /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 48

Savings Per Semester: $5,952

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: MUS 151 Music Appreciation

Instructor: Paige Lush

Textbook Success Story:  Adopted a free OER text and created a playlist of public domain and creative commons licensed music in Canvas for listening examples.

Previous Book Name/Cost: The Enjoyment of Music /$126.75

New Book Name/CostUnderstanding Music Past and Present /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 50

Savings Per Semester: $6337.50

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: HRT 103 Intro to Plant Science

Instructor: Bruce Spangenberg

Textbook Success Story:  Similar strategy in 4 other core courses have eliminated textbook cost for students ; have also eliminated textbook in several elective courses in Department.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Introductory Botany /$245

New Book Name/Cost: Intro to Plant Science at MCC /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 48

Savings Per Semester: $11,760

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: CHM 164 & CHM 165 Introductory Chemistry and General Chemistry I

Instructor: Cheryl Kordik and Mary Van Opstal

Textbook Success Story:  We eliminated costly copyrighted labs procedures and rewrote and created our own lab experiments to replace them. This means the students will have one lab manual which will reduce their lab costs significantly. In doing this we formatted the new lab manual to be consistent throughout, instead of having labs from many different sources. For accessibility, we can now make these labs available through Canvas as well.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Cengage Lab Manuals/ $19.50 for 164 and $35.00 for 165

New Book Name/Cost: Custom Lab Manual /cost of printing

Enrollment Per Semester: 168 for CHM 164, 48 for CHM 165

Savings Per Semester$3276 for CHM 164, $1680 for CHM 165

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: BUS 241 Legal Environment of Business

Instructor: Mary Ambrose-Gerak

Textbook Success Story:  Strategies from Textbook Reduction Camp: 1. Found an OER from the Saylor Foundation and adapted it to MCC; 2. Posted the OER on the Master Shell in the Files/hdrive for their use or for them to download. 3. Found resources that are in the public domain or we have reviewed and worked through licensing issues.4. Uploaded and edited current assignments, MC videos, resources, lecture notes, quizzes and discussions; 5. Shared the materials and trained the other faculty to use this technology. We have eliminated: 1. photocopying the books in-house for the students from Business Law 23rd edition; 2. the e-book; both were two of our other previous strategies and 3. allowing the students to purchase any used edition- hoping that their instructors would assist them in adapting the materials and that all materials were covered in different editions similarly. Second, the e-book currently in use and the photocopying certain chapters were also strategies nearly as expensive as purchasing the original hard bound book. Finally, the approach allowing the students to buy any of the editions from 19th through 23rd and furnishing a memo that showed them the correct chapters in each to use was cumbersome, awkward and inefficient from the students' feedback despite that they may have used $8.00 books from Amazon used books or Half Price Books. We also received a double/triple benefit in that this new OER can be used to cut book costs for Business 240 and potentially Business Ethics 235.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Business Law/ Legal Environemnt of Business /$300 hardback, $200 for ebook

New Book Name/CostBusiness Law- Legal Environment of Business /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: 64

Savings Per Semester: $12,800

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course:  HFE 150, 161 and 171 Contemporary Health Issues, Personal Fitness, Exercise Science I

Instructor: Jim Blaz and Vicki Hamill

Textbook Success Story:  We were able to find a plethora of free information for all three courses and the cost saving was significant. We re-organized our Canvas shell to allow students to open up their "Modules" page and access all information for the course. In the past, course information was scattered throughout the Canvas shell and often was confusing for students to navigate. We also created a "Master Shell" on Canvas for all HFE instructors to use for their various courses. This "Master Shell" is populated with free OER resources and will be valuable to all instructors.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Health: The Basics, Fit and Well: Abbreviated edition, Anatomy Coloring Book /$130.00, $109.75, $20.00

New Book Name/CostHealth- Open Courseware from Foothill College, Text for Personal Fitness abandoned and all labs accessible through OERmaterials available at no cost, ANatomy/Physiology OpenStax /$0

Enrollment Per Semester: Health:50, Persoanl Fitness:25-30, Exercise Science I:25, Fall only

Savings Per SemesterHFE 150 = $6,500.00, HFE 161 = $2,743.75 - $3292.50, HFE 171 = $500.00

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: BIO 263 & BIO 264 Human Anatomy and Physiology I and Human Anatomy and Physiology II Course Sequence

Instructor: Deborah Firak

Textbook Success Story:  I do not require students to complete homework or quizzes at the Pearson website, so they don't need to purchase the access code, and can purchase a used textbook. I've written several labs and diagrams, developed audio lectures (posted in Canvas modules), and include a large variety of free access resources online (links and other documents), available to face-to-face sections, as well as to my blended sections.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Human Anatomy and Physiology by Elaine Marieb and Katja Hoehn; and Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual /$315 (with required access code to Pearson MyLab & Mastering) and $160 for Hole's Lab Manual ($475.00 total)

New Book Name/Cost1) Anatomy & Physiology openstax textbook (Rice University) and 2) Custom lab manual, using Creative Commons source, and MCC instructor authored labs and A Brief Atlas of the Human Body by Matt Hutchinson, et. al. (used) /~$10

Enrollment Per Semester: 48 (for two sections, two labs)

Savings Per Semester$465 for digital x 48 = $22,320.00 savings; with AP openstax bound textbook: $19,824.00 savings

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Course: HIS 172 US History II

Instructor: Sarah Sullivan

Textbook Success Story:  Using an OER, which included developing chapter quizzes, restructuring the course, and designing new resources. The single book we are using goes to new editions very rarely, and because the subject is history, the text content should not change substantially, so it may be possible to use the single text for years resulting in students' ability to purchase used books. The text we are using is under $10 on Amazon.com and other web based retailers.

Previous Book Name/Cost: Give me Liberty, Voices of Freedom /$101

New Book Name/CostDigital History (OER) and Thinking Through Sources; Exploring American Histories /$18

Enrollment Per Semester: 200

Savings Per Semester: $16,600

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------