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Chicago Style Citations

Chicago Manual of Style uses two documentation styles:

  1. Notes-Bibliography System: used for literature, history, and the arts
  2. Author-Date System: used for the social sciences

If you are unsure which one to use, be sure to ask your instructor!


  • Include an endnote or a footnote each time you use a source, regardless how you refer to it (direct quote, summary, or paraphrase)
    • Footnotes: If you use footnotes, include them in numbered order at the bottom of the page where the reference was made.
    • Endnotes: If you use endnotes, organize them in a numbered list Notes page at the end of your paper before the bibliography.
  • Both footnotes and endnotes start with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space before the text of the reference.
  • In your writing, use a superscript number at the end of the sentence that refers your reader to the corresponding footnote or endnote.
  • The first time you use a note, include all relevant information about the source: author's full name, source title, and facts of the publication (publication name, date, page numbers).
  • For subsequent notes that refer to the same source, only include the author's last name, a shortened form of the title, and page numbers.

Example Note (Book)

(number of note) First Name Last Name, Title of Source (Publisher location: Name of Publisher, date), page number-page number.

1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened Note

3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.

4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.