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APA citations

In Text Citations

Basic Format of APA In Text Citations

When referring to a broad work:

(author last name, year) --> (Rizzo, 2016)

When referring to a specific page number:

(author last name, year, p.) --> (Rizzo, 2016, p. 72)

The sentence punctuation goes outside the parentheses.

Example - one author: Louv (2012) states that the lack of outside activity is a “Nature Deficit Disorder” (p. 34).

Example - two authors: “Teachers who provide nature play set the stage for lifelong approaches to learning” (Talbot & Frost, 2014, p. 21).


Parenthetical Citations

When you refer to the author name, date, and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. These are often used after a direct quote.

Example"Information creation and consumption will always be a significant part of our lives and our society, influencing how we understand and interact with the world" (Cooke, 2018, p. 3).


Narrative Citations

When you refer to some or all of the work in your own writing. These are often used when paraphrasing or summarizing.

In this next example, we combine narrative citations and parenthetical citations. We refer to the date and the author in our narrative, and the page number appears in parentheses at the end.

Example: In 2018, Cooke described acquiring information literacy skills as a lifelong process (2).