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APA citations

In Text Citations

These citations appear in parentheses and usually consist of the author(s) last name(s), year the information was published, and page number(s) of the source you are citing. The sentence punctuation goes outside the parentheses.

Example - one author:

Louv (2012) states that the lack of outside activity is a “Nature Deficit Disorder” (p. 34).

Example - two authors:

“Teachers who provide nature play set the stage for lifelong approaches to learning” (Talbot & Frost, 2014, p. 21).

Web sources may not have a page number, so you won't include a page number in your in-text citation.

Parenthetical Citations

When you refer to the author name, date, and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. These are often used after a direct quote.

Example:

"Information creation and consumption will always be a significant part of our lives and our society, influencing how we understand and interact with the world" (Cooke, 2018, p. 3).

Narrative Citations

When you refer to some or all of the work in your own writing. These are often used when paraphrasing or summarizing.

In this next example, we combine narrative citations and parenthetical citations. We refer to the date and the author in our narrative, and the page number appears in parentheses at the end.

In 2018, Cooke described acquiring information literacy skills as a lifelong process (2).